EFFECT OF ADDED SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEVELS ON THE AROMA CHARACTERISTICS OF WINES FROM PANCIU WINE REGION
Abstract. In the wine-making process, the yeasts form over 20 higher alcohols that improve the sensation of palatine veil for the wine. The amount of higher alcohols is lower for white and rosé wines obtained from clarified musts fermented at moderate temperatures. The formation of higher alcohols is confirmed by the fact that the addition of certain nitrogen compounds to a glucose-containing culture medium leads, after the fermentation, to an increase in the higher alcohol content. Data evaluate by comparison the levels of higher alcohols, esters and aldehydes, important to fermentation process in case of several wines from Panciu region. The wine-making was done by classical methods and by using specific protocols for low content sulphur dioxide. This study is focused to compare wines obtained from two grape varieties produced at industrial level: Feteasca regala vs. Feteasca regala Frizzante and Cabernet Sauvignon rosé vs. Cabernet Sauvignon. The compounds were analyzed by GC-FID method with head-space technique for methanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, isoamyl acetate and acetaldehyde. The results showed that in almost every comparative study the levels of aroma compounds are maintained, when compared with the wines with low content of sulphur dioxide. Tuckey test showed that 1-propanol and ethyl acetate register statistically significant differences for Cabernet Sauvignon rosé and for Feteasca regala Frizzante.
Key words: Higher alcohols; GC-FID; Fermentation; Sulphur dioxide.
2. LASIK-KURDYŚ, M., MAJCHER, M., NOWAK, J. (2018). Effects of different techniques of malolactic fermentation induction on diacetyl metabolism and biosynthesis of selected aromatic esters in cool climate grape wines. In: Molecules, vol. 23(10), pp. 2549 – 2564.
3. MAKHOTKINA, O., KILMARTIN, P.A. (2012). Hydrolysis and formation of volatile esters in New Zealand Sauvignon blanc wine. In: Food Chemistry, vol. 135(2), pp. 486-493.
4. MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ, M.P., BAUTISTA-ORTÍN, A.B., PÉREZ-PORRAS, P., JURADO, R., GÓMEZ-PLAZA, E. (2020). A new approach to the reduction of alcohol content in red wines: the use of high-power ultrasounds. In: Foods, vol. 9(6), pp. 726-743.
5. MORGAN, S.C., HAGGERTY, J.J., JOHNSTON, B., JIRANEK, V., DURALL, D.M. (2019). Response to sulfur dioxide addition by two commercial saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. In: Fermentation, vol. 5(3), pp. 69-89.
6. NARDINI, M., GARAGUSO, I. (2018). Effect of sulfites on antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and flavonoid measurements in white wine. In: Foods, vol. 7(3), pp. 35-49.
7. SHARMA, R., GARG, P., KUMAR, P., BHATIA, S.K., KULSHRESTHA, S. (2020). Microbial fermentation and its role in quality improvement of fermented foods. In: Fermentation, vol. 6(4), pp. 106-126.
8. SUN, Y., ZHANG, T., LÜ, H., YU, Z., LI, X. (2016). Effect of added sulphur dioxide levels on the fermentation characteristics of strawberry wine. In: Journal- Institute of Brewing, vol. 122(3), pp. 466-451.
9. VASHAKIDZE, P., BEZHUASHVILI, M. (2020). Higher alcohols of wine-transformation regulation of intermediate products in alcoholic fermentation. In: International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, vol. 8(5), pp. 455-461.
10.ZARA, G., NARDI, T. (2021). Yeast metabolism and its exploitation in emerging winemaking trends: from sulfite tolerance to sulfite reduction. In: Fermentation, vol. 7(2), pp. 57-74.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.