Evaluarea unor hibrizi de floarea-soarelui privind rezistenţa la secetă în Republica Moldova şi România

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Olesea TABĂRĂ Luxiţa RÎŞNOVEANU Ion GÎSCĂ Steliana CLAPCO Maria JOIŢA-PĂCUREANU Maria DUCA

Abstract

Abstract. The paper includes the results of evaluation of 20 sunflower hybrids for some biometric and productivity parameters under different climatic conditions in the experimental fields of Agricultural Research and Development Station Braila, Romania and AMG-Agroselect Comert, Soroca, Moldova. Some differences in the behavior of sunflower plants cultivated under conditions varying in water availability and thermal regime were established. In Soroca fields the parameters: plant height and thousand-seed weight had less values (by 23% and 12,3% respectively) compared to the plants cultivated in Braila where the weather conditions over the experimental period (2016-2017 agricultural year) were more favorable. The diminished values of the mentioned indicators recorded in Soroca can be caused by the small amounts of precipitation during June-July, critical for the development of the sunflower, as well as by the lack of soil water created due to the low amount of precipitation in September-April. As regards calathidium diameter no significant differences in dimensions related to precipitation amount and thermal regime were found in the majority of hybrids cultivated in both Republic of Moldova and Romania. There were 6 hybrids that showed stable values of the analyzed parameters with insignificant diminution of the productivity indices (H2, H5, H6, H8, H9 and H11).


Key words: Helianthus annuus; Hybrids; Climatic conditions; Temperature; Precipitations; Productivity indices.


Rezumat. Lucrarea include rezultatele unui studiu destinat evaluării a mai multor parametri biometrici şi de productivitate la 20 de hibrizi de floarea-soarelui cultivaţi în condiţii climaterice diferite pe câmpurile experimentale ale Staţiunii de Cercetare-Dezvoltare Agricolă Brăila, România şi ale companiei AMG-Agroselect Comerţ, Soroca, Republica Moldova. Au fost puse în evidenţă unele deosebiri ale comportamentului plantelor de floarea-soarelui cultivate în condiţii variate ale aprovizionării cu apă şi regimului termic. La plantele cultivate pe câmpurile din Soroca indicatorii: talia plantei şi masa a 1000 de boabe au prezentat valori diminuate (respectiv cu 23% şi 12,3%) faţă de plantele cultivate la Brăila, unde condiţiile meteorologice pe parcursul perioadei experimentale (anul agricol 2016-2017) au fost mai favorabile. Valorile diminuate ale indicatorilor menţionaţi înregistrate la Soroca pot fi cauzate atât de cantităţile reduse de precipitaţii în perioada iunie-iulie, perioadă critică pentru dezvoltarea florii-soarelui, cât şi de deficitul de apă din sol specific pentru lunile septembrie-aprilie. În cazul diametrului calatidiilor, la majoritatea hibrizilor cultivaţi atât în R. Moldova, cât şi în România, nu s-a evidenţiat o diferenţă esenţială a dimensiunilor în funcţie de cantitatea de precipitaţii şi regimul termic. S-au remarcat 6 hibrizi de floarea-soarelui ce au prezentat stabilitate a parametrilor analizaţi, cu diminuare nesemnificativă a indicilor de productivitate (H2, H5, H6, H8, H9 şi H11).


Cuvinte-cheie: Helianthus annuus; Hibrizi; Condiţii climaterice; Temperatură; Precipitaţii; Indici de productivitate.

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TABĂRĂ, Olesea et al. Evaluarea unor hibrizi de floarea-soarelui privind rezistenţa la secetă în Republica Moldova şi România. Stiinta agricola, [S.l.], n. 2, p. 8-16, jan. 2019. ISSN 2587-3202. Available at: <https://sa.uasm.md/index.php/sa/article/view/609>. Date accessed: 27 june 2019.
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