Investigation on effects of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate with and without lactated Ringer’s solution on potassium compensation, rehydration status, endocrinal response and acide-base balance in calves with metabolic acidosis

Main Article Content



Abstract. The study was carried out on a total of 40 calves. Twenty calves (n=20) which were treated with hypertonic sodium bicarbonate in physiological saline served as the Study Group. The remaining 20 calves, which were treated with sodium bicarbonate in physiological saline plus lactated Ringer’s solution, served as the Control Group. During the study, animals received fresh milk up to 10% of their body weight, but no antibiotics were used. All of the animals were tested for clinical findings such as temperature, pulsation and respiration rates, dehydration findings, hematological findings such as white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, biochemical findings such as aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumine, urea, creatinine, glucose, lactate and blood gas findings, such as total carbon dioxide, partial carbon dioxide and electrolytes such as potassium, sodium bicarbonate, chlorine and calcium along with base excess. All the measurements were taken before the study began and at the 1st, 3rd and 7th hours after the start of the study. The results of the study showed that metabolic acidosis in calves with diarrhea was treated more quickly with lactated Ringer’s solution than with physiological saline, although the hyperosmolality and hypernatremic states were corrected with both solutions. Consequently, lactated Ringer’s solution supplied a better clinical response than that of physiologic serum, and it is considered that practitioners should add it to fluid therapy for more rapid physiological correction of calves with metabolic acidosis.

Key words: Calves; Newborn animals; Metabolic acidosis; Fluid therapy; Electrolyte balance.

Article Details

How to Cite
ELITOK, Bulent. Investigation on effects of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate with and without lactated Ringer’s solution on potassium compensation, rehydration status, endocrinal response and acide-base balance in calves with metabolic acidosis. Stiinta agricola, [S.l.], n. 1, p. 119-125, july 2018. ISSN 2587-3202. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 feb. 2019.
Table of contents


1. ABDELMALEK, B. (1987). Total protein, urea and blood sugar in healthy calves and calves with diarrhea [in Bulgarian]. In: Veterinarno-medicinski nauki, vol. 24(4), pp. 55-58. ISSN 0506-8215.
2. CHO, Y.I., HAN, J.I., WANG, C., COOPER, V., SCHWARTZ, K., ENGELKEN, T., YOON, K.J. (2013).Casecontrol study of microbiological etiology associated with calf diarrhea. In: Vet. Microbiol, vol. 166(3-4), pp. 375-
385. DOI 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.07.001
3. CIEZA, J.A., HINOSTROZA, J., HUAPAYA, J.A., LEON, C.P. (2013). Sodium chloride 0.9% versus Lactated Ringer in the management of severely dehydrated patients with choleriform diarrhoea. In: Journal of
Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 7(7), pp. 528-532. DOI 10.3855/jidc.2531
4. EMIRALIOĞLU, M., ÖZÇELIK, U. (2014). Hipokalsemi ve oksijen tedavisi. In: Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Derg, vol. 57(1), pp. 50-60. ISSN 0010-0161.
5. FOSTER, D.M., SMITH, G.W. (2009). Pathophysiology of diarrhea in calves. In: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, vol. 25, pp. 13-36. DOI 10.1016/ j.cvfa.2008.10.013
6. GREENBAUM, L.A. (2004). Pathophysiology of body fluids and fluid therapy. In: BEHRMAN, R.E., KLIEGMAN, R.M., JENSON, H.B., eds. Nelson Textook of Pediatrics. 17th ed., pp. 223-234. ISBN 978-0721695563.
7. HALL, G.A., JONES, P.W., MORGAN, J.H. (1992). Calf Diarrhoea. In: Andrews, A.H. et al., ed. Bovine Medicine: diseases and husbandry of cattle. USA: Blackwell Science, pp. 154-180. ISBN 0632030399.
8. HANNA, J.D., SCHEINMAN, J.I., CHAN, J.C.M. (1995). The kidney in acid-base balance. In: Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 42(6), pp. 1365-95. DOI 10.1016/S0031-3955(16)40089-1
9. HUNT, E. (1992). Diarrheal diseases of neonatal rurninants. In: Howard, J.L., ed. Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice. 3th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, pp. 103-110. ISBN 978-0721636337.
10. KEE, J.L., PAULANKA, B.J, POLEK, C. (2010). Handbook of fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base imbalances. 3rd ed. Delmar: Cengage Learning, USA, pp. 127-152.ISBN 978-1435453685.
11. LEWIS, L.D., PHILLIPS, R.W. (1978). Pathophysioiogic Changes due to coronavirus-induced diarrhea in the calf. In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 173(5), pp. 636-642. ISSN 0003-1488.
12. LORENZ, I., KLEE, W. (2007). Neonatal calf diarrhoea -something old, something new. In: Cattle Practice,vol. 15, pp. 146-151. ISSN 0969-1251.
13. MAGANCK, V., HOFLACK, G., OPSOMER, G. (2014). Advances in prevention and therapy of neonatal dairy calf diarrhoea). a systematical review with emphasis on colostrum management and fluid therapy. In: Acta
Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 56(1), pp. 75-83.DOI 10.1186/s13028-014-0075-x
14. MAHAJAN, V, SAJAN, S.S., SHARMA, A., KAUR, J. (2012). Ringer’s lactate us Normal saline for children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration: a double blind randomized controlled trial. In: Indian Pediatrics,
vol. 49(12), pp. 963-968. ISSN 0019-6061.
15. MAIER, R.V. (1997). Shock. In: GREENFUELD, L.J. et al., eds. Surgery: Scientific Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, pp. 182-215.
16. MARTINI, W.Z., CORTEZ, D.S., DUBICK, M.A. (2013). Comparisons of normal saline and lactated Ringer’s resuscitation on hemodynamics, metabolic responses, and coagulation in pigs after severe hemorrhagic shock. In:
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, vol. 21, pp. 86-95. ISSN 1757-7241.
17. MULLINS, R.J. (1996). Management of Shock. Stamford, Appleton &Lange, Philadelphia, USA. 18. NARINS, R.G., GARDNER, L.B. 1981). Simple acid-base disturbances. In: Medical Clinics of NorthAmerica, vol. 65(2), pp. 321-346. ISSN 0025-7125.
19. ÖCAL, N., DURU, S.Y., BAĞCI, B.B., GAZYAĞCI, S. (2006). İshalli buzağılarda asit-baz dengesi bozukluklarının saha şartlarında tanı ve sağaltımı. In: Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, vol. 12(2), pp. 175-183. ISSN 1300-6045.
20. ÖZCAN, C., AKGÜL, Y. (2004). Neonatal İshalli Buzagılarda Hematolojik, Biyokimyasal ve Elektrokardiyografik Bulgular. In: Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi, vol. 15(1-2), pp. 123-129.
21. RADOSTITS, O.M., GAY, C.C., HINCHCLIFF, K.W., CONSTABLE, P.D., eds. (2006). Veterinary Medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, goat, pigs and horses. 10th ed. BailliereTindall, London, 2065 p. ISBN 9780702039911.
22. ROUSSEL, A.J. (1993). Fluid Therapy, Transfusion, and Shock Therapy. In: Howard, J.L., ed. Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice. 3th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 8 p. ISBN 978-0721636337.
23. SARNAIK, A.P., HEIDEMANN, S.M. (2007). Respiratory pathophysiology and regulation. In: BEHRMAN, R.E., KLIEGMAN, R.M., JENSON, H.B., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 18th edit. Philadelphia:
Saunders Company, pp. 1719-1726. ISBN 9781437721805.