Influenţa lupoaiei asupra cantităţii şi calităţii uleiului de floarea-soarelui

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Ion GÎSCĂ

Abstract

Among the factors that cause significant yield losses in sunflower is the infestation with broomrape.
The parasite affects a number of yield components, namely plant height, head diameter, number of seeds per head, lipid and protein content in seeds, oil quality and quantity, etc. The present study carried out in 2012-2013 dealt with the influence of broomrape on oil yield and oleic acid content in various sunflower genotypes (commercial and experimental hybrids) cultivated in 6 distinct localities on uninfested and infested fields where the degree of broomrape attack varied from 0 to 70%. Oil content in the hybrids Favorit, Performer and LG 5661 was affected to some extent by the degree of parasite attack. The difference between the oil content in sunflower seeds from the uninfested/ poorly infested fields and those from the heavily infested fields was about 2-3% (Favorit, LG 5661) and 5-6% (Performer). The content of oleic acid in the hybrids Sandrina, HS 5034, HS 3045, with mean resistance and LG-3, Favorit and HS 3655, with a high resistance to broomrape, varies mainly in relation to the genotype and cultivation conditions, and less depends on the attack of the parasite.
Key words: Helianthus annuus; Orobanche cumana Wallr.; Genotype; Attack degree; Oil content; Oleic acid.
Rezumat. Printre factorii care produc pierderi considerabile de recoltă la cultura de floarea-soarelui se numără infestarea cu lupoaie Orobanche cumana Wallr. Parazitul afectează mai multe elemente de productivitate, precum înălţimea plantei, diametrul calatidiului, numărul de seminţe per calatidiu, conţinutul de lipide şi proteine în seminţe, calitatea şi cantitatea uleiului etc. În prezentul studiu, pe parcursul a doi ani (2012-2013) s-a evaluat influenţa lupoaiei asupra productiei de ulei şi conţinutului de acid oleic la diverse genotipuri de floarea-soarelui (hibrizi comerciali sI experimentali), cultivaţi în 6 localităţi distincte, pe terenuri neinfestate şi infestate, gradul de atac al lupoaiei variind între 0 şi 70%. Conţinutul de ulei la hibrizii Favorit, Performer şi LG 5661 a fost influenţat într-o oarecare măsură de gradul de atac al parazitului. Diferenţa dintre conţinutul de ulei în seminţele de floareasoarelui
de pe câmpuri neinfestate/slab infestate şi de pe terenurile puternic infestate, este de cca 2-3% (Favorit,
LG 5661) şi 5-6% (Performer). Conţinutul de acid oleic la hibrizii Sandrina, HS 5034, HS 3045, cu nivel mediu de rezistenţă la lupoaie şi LG-3, Favorit şi HS 3655, cu nivel ridicat de rezistenţă la lupoaie, variază în funcţie de genotip şi condiţii de cultivare şi, în măsură mai mică, în funcţie de gradul de atac al parazitului.
Cuvinte-cheie: Helianthus annuus; Orobanche cumana Wallr.; Genotip; Grad de atac; Conţinut de ulei; Acid oleic.

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How to Cite
GÎSCĂ, Ion. Influenţa lupoaiei asupra cantităţii şi calităţii uleiului de floarea-soarelui. Stiinta agricola, [S.l.], n. 2, p. 16-22, jan. 2018. ISSN 2587-3202. Available at: <http://sa.uasm.md/index.php/sa/article/view/563>. Date accessed: 22 feb. 2018.
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References

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