Evaluarea rezistenţei unor genotipuri de floarea-soarelui la mană şi rugină în condiţii naturale de infectare Evaluation of the resistance of some sunflower genotypes to natural infection of downy mildew and rust

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Aliona CUCEREAVÎI

Abstract

In field experiments conducted in 2013-2014 sunflower breeding material (maternal and paternal lines of different origin) and hybrids from the collection of the company “AMG-Agroselect Comert” (Republic of Moldova) were evaluated for their resistance to natural infection by downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) and rust (Puccinia helianthi). During the experiments the number of attacked plants and the percentage of attack per plant were recorded as well as disease frequency and intensity and the degree of disease attack were calculated. The data of the field observations were correlated with the results of the molecular studies on the presence or absence of downy mildew and rust resistance genes (Pl6, Pl5/8 and R1), which were performed previously. Thus, the genotypes which contain Pl6, Pl5/8 genes were not infected at all or exhibited an insignificant level of infection by Plasmopara halstedii (maximum 2.4%). The infection by Puccinia helianthi was detected in all maternal lines with cytoplasmic male sterility which lack rust resistance gene (R1). The degree of attack ranged from 0.1 to 93.5%. The paternal lines and the hybrids that possess R1 gene were not attacked by the pathogen. The established correlations denote the effectiveness of molecular screening in rapid and accurate evaluation of the material used in plant breeding and of the obtained hybrids. The native MS-2570C line (adapted to the pedoclimate and cultivation conditions specific to the region and characterized by a low degree of attack or the complete lack thereof) is of a particular interest to plant breeding programs as a source of downy mildew and rust resistance.


Key words: Helianthus annuus; Genotype; Disease resistance; Downy mildew; Rust; Plasmopara halstedii; Puccinia helianthi.


Rezumat. În experienţe de câmp realizate în a. 2013-2014 s-a testat materialul de ameliorare (linii materne şi paterne de provenienţă diferită) şi unii hibrizi de floarea-soarelui din colecţia companiei „AMG-Agroselect Comerţ” în scopul evaluării rezistenţei la infecţia naturală cu mană (Plasmopara halstedii) si rugină (Puccinia helianthi). In cadrul experienţelor s-a evaluat numărul de plante atacate, procentul de atac corespunzător fiecărei plante şi s-a calculate frecvenţa, intensitatea şi gradul de atac al bolilor. Datele observaţiilor din câmp au fost corelate cu rezultatele studiului molecular privind prezenţa sau lipsa genelor de rezistenţă la mană (Plşi Pl5/8) şi rugină (R1), publicate anterior. Astfel, genotipurile, la care sunt prezente genele Pl6, Pl5/8 nu au fost infectate sau au manifestat un nivel nesemnificativ de infecţie cu Plasmopara halstedii (maxim 2,4%). Infecţia cu Puccinia helianthi a fost detectată la toate liniile materne cu androsterilitate citoplasmatică, lipsite de gena de rezistenţă la rugină (R1). Valorile gradului de atac au variat între 0,1 şi 93,5%. Liniile paterne şi hibrizii care posedă gena R1, nu au fost atacaţi de patogen. Corelaţiile stabilite denotă eficienţa screeningului molecular în aprecierea rapidă şi corectă a materialului utilizat în ameliorare şi a hibrizilor obţinuţi. Interes deosebit pentru programele de ameliorare în calitate de sursă de rezistenţă la mană şi rugină prezintă linia autohtonă MS-2570C, care este adaptată la condiţiile pedoclimaterice şi de cultivare specific regiunii şi se caracterizează printr-un grad scăzut de atac sau lipsa acestuia.


Cuvinte-cheie: Helianthus annuus; Genotip; Rezistenţă la boli; Mană; Rugină; Plasmopara halstedii; Puccinia helianthi.

Article Details

How to Cite
CUCEREAVÎI, Aliona. Evaluarea rezistenţei unor genotipuri de floarea-soarelui la mană şi rugină în condiţii naturale de infectare. Stiinta agricola, [S.l.], n. 2, p. 3-10, jan. 2018. ISSN 2587-3202. Available at: <http://sa.uasm.md/index.php/sa/article/view/551>. Date accessed: 22 feb. 2018.
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